مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد اختراع بیوتکنولوژی در کشورهای BRICS – الزویر ۲۰۱۸

elsevier

 

مشخصات مقاله
ترجمه عنوان مقاله اختراع بیوتکنولوژی در کشورهای BRICS: استراتژی ها و دینامیک
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Biotechnology Patenting in the BRICS Countries: Strategies and Dynamics
انتشار مقاله سال ۲۰۱۸
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی ۴ صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
پایگاه داده نشریه الزویر
نوع نگارش مقاله Mini review
مقاله بیس این مقاله بیس نمیباشد
نمایه (index) scopus – master journals – JCR – MedLine
نوع مقاله ISI
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
ایمپکت فاکتور(IF) ۱۳٫۵۷۸ در سال ۲۰۱۷
شاخص H_index ۱۸۴ در سال ۲۰۱۸
شاخص SJR ۳٫۵۲۴ در سال ۲۰۱۸
رشته های مرتبط مهندسی صنایع، بیوتکنولوژی
نوع ارائه مقاله ژورنال
مجله / کنفرانس روندها در بیوتکنولوژی – Trends in Biotechnology
دانشگاه National Research University Higher School of Economics – Russia
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2017.11.008
کد محصول E9576
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فهرست مطالب مقاله:
Dynamics of BRICS Patent Activity in Biotechnology
BRICS Capacity and Potential in Biotechnology: Searching for Similarity
Conclusion
References

بخشی از متن مقاله:
Dynamics of BRICS Patent Activity in Biotechnology

Biotechnology patent applications filed by the BRICS countries have increased rapidly over the last two decades (Figure 1). This tremendous growth has resulted in the BRICS countries accounting for 25% of biotechnology-related patent applications worldwide in 2014. While the BRICS countries have all increased activity in biotechnology patenting, they differ in consistency, growth rate, and the underlying factors. In 1994, China was the 16th ranked country in terms of the number of patent applications filed by its residents. As of 2017, it is ranked 2nd globally and the most active of the BRICS group. The biggest factor in this increase is a strong incentive for Chinese researchers to patent: the country’s higher education system uses patents as one of the indicators of individual and organizational R&D performance. As domestic patents are easier to obtain than academic publications in highimpact journals, filing domestic applications is a sensible tactic for many Chinese academics [8,9]. The presence of biotechnology patents registered by Chinese firms is obscured by the tremendous activity by academic researchers from numerous Chinese universities. Brazil and India have also had rapid growth in biotechnology patent activity but are still far from being among the global top 10. Russia and South Africa have experienced less rapid growth recently, but Russia is in the 2nd position among the BRICS countries

BRICS Capacity and Potential in Biotechnology: Searching for Similarity

Intellectual Property Protection Strategies

The BRICS countries are diverse in their new biotechnology intellectual property (IP) protection strategies. Chinese and Russian patent applications are predominantly domestic (filed to their national patent offices). Just 4% (in 2014) of China’s biotechnology patent applications were filed abroad. For Russia, nondomestic patenting is somewhat higher (17.4%), though still relatively small. Among the many possible explanations for a focus on domestic patenting are a rational IP protection strategy oriented toward exercising IP rights in national markets and/or low-quality inventions that are perceived uncompetitive in global markets [10]. Brazilian patent activity in biotechnology is more balanced – patents registered both domestically and internationally (66% vs. 34% in 2014). South African and Indian biotechnology patent holders focus on the international IP market. In fact, in 2014 all South African patent applications were filed abroad. As the South African patent office does not review biotechnology applications to assure quality of claims and novelty of contribution, the validity of their domestic patents must be decided in court [11]. South African biotechnology patent holders appear to value patent offices with an internal review (or invigilation) process, such as the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). India is unique as it is the only BRICS country with commercial interests in patenting abroad, not only based on the high proportion of Indian nondomestic biotechnology patent applications, but also because leading Indian actors in the domain include for-profit firms.

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