مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد مشکلات گسترده با مخالفین پافشار در استدلال بر باورهای غلط – الزویر ۲۰۲۱

elsevier

 

مشخصات مقاله
ترجمه عنوان مقاله مشکلات گسترده با مخالفین پافشار در استدلال بر باورهای غلط : شواهدی برای دورشناسی از منظر
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Extended difficulties with counterfactuals persist in reasoning with false beliefs: Evidence for teleology-in-perspective
انتشار مقاله سال ۲۰۲۱
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی ۲۰ صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
پایگاه داده نشریه الزویر
نوع نگارش مقاله
مقاله پژوهشی (Research Article)
مقاله بیس این مقاله بیس میباشد
نمایه (index) Scopus – Master Journals List – JCR
نوع مقاله ISI
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
ایمپکت فاکتور(IF)
۲٫۳۰۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰
شاخص H_index ۱۱۰ در سال ۲۰۲۱
شاخص SJR ۱٫۸۴۱ در سال ۲۰۲۰
شناسه ISSN ۰۰۲۲-۰۹۶۵
شاخص Quartile (چارک) Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰
مدل مفهومی دارد
پرسشنامه ندارد
متغیر دارد
رفرنس دارد
رشته های مرتبط روانشناسی
گرایش های مرتبط روانشناسی بالینی کودک و نوجوان
نوع ارائه مقاله
ژورنال
مجله  مجله روانشناسی تجربی کودک – Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
دانشگاه University of Stirling, Stirling, UK
کلمات کلیدی دورشناسی از منظر، استدلال خلاف واقع، باور غلط، مدل سازی تطبیقی، نظریه نظریه، نظریه شبیه سازی
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Teleology-in-perspective, Counterfactual reasoning, False belief, Adaptive modeling, Theory theory, Simulation theory
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2020.105058
کد محصول E15304
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فهرست مطالب مقاله:

Abstract

Keywords

Introduction

Experiment 1

Experiment 2

General discussion

References

بخشی از متن مقاله:

Abstract

Increasing evidence suggests that counterfactual reasoning is involved in false belief reasoning. Because existing work is correlational, we developed a manipulation that revealed a signature of counterfactual reasoning in participants’ answers to false belief questions. In two experiments, we tested 3- to 14-year-olds and found high positive correlations (r = .56 and r = .73) between counterfactual and false belief questions. Children were very likely to respond to both questions with the same answer, also committing the same type of error. We discuss different theories and their ability to account for each aspect of our findings and conclude that reasoning about others’ beliefs and actions requires similar cognitive processes as using counterfactual suppositions. Our findings question the explanatory power of the traditional frameworks, theory theory and simulation theory, in favor of views that explicitly provide for a relationship between false belief reasoning and counterfactual reasoning.

Introduction

Counterfactual situations reflect the world as it would be had things been different. False beliefs are counterfactual insofar as they represent the world as it is not. Suppose that ‘‘Max” puts his chocolate into the drawer. Later, in his absence, his mum (mother) bakes a cake, uses some of the chocolate, and puts it in the cupboard. At this point, Max falsely believes that his chocolate is still in the drawer. Children older than 4 years typically predict that Max will search for his chocolate in the drawer even though it is no longer there. Younger children, until about 3½ years, indicate the item’s true location (Wellman, Cross, & Watson, 2001).1

The false belief task has become an important indicator of children’s acquisition of our folk psychology explaining how people act and why, which is thought to be based on mental states, in particular beliefs and desires. The task is for methodological reasons the best indicator of understanding belief as a mental state because it obligates a separation between the objective conditions and the agent’s subjective view. Children’s performance on the false belief task has been found to correlate with their ability to answer counterfactual questions (Riggs, Peterson, Robinson, & Mitchell, 1998; see also many subsequent studies in Fig. 1) around 4 years of age. This relationship remains difficult to explain for the traditional theories about folk psychology, for example, theory theory and simulation theory

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