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One of the most noteworthy arcs of the 21st century has been the explosive growth seen in the usage and deployment of technology. More specifically, the advancement of information and communications technology (ICT) has been the foundation for many of the innovations seen over this century thus far. The wide-spanning adoption of the Internet for social media, e-commerce, news consumption, and more has redefined much of our everyday lives and industries across the world. Due to the advancements of ICT, there are many exciting opportunities for what is yet to come. One longstanding opportunity for the future is the vision of the smart city.
There are countless different ideas and definitions for what exactly qualifies as a smart city. A more general definition, provided by Bakıcı et al. in , defines smart cities as being high-tech cities that serve to connect people, information, and city-wide infrastructure and resources using advances in technology to improve sustainability, innovation, and overall quality-of-life. The extent to which how pervasive (or intrusive) technologies are incorporated to accomplish such goals is often a point of contention in the literature . However, the many different visions for what define smart cities all generally involve heavy utilization of technology to improve the maintenance of cities to further improve and/or optimize city-specific operations for different stakeholders (e.g., citizens, the environment).
Realizing the ambitious vision of smart cities requires seamlessly making decisions for a host of different applications and domains with minimal sacrifice with respect to performance and resource costs. Some applications of interest for smart cities include, but are not limited to, smart traffic light control, smart information spread (or advertisement), smart energy distribution, smart waste management, etc. Ideally, data generated in urban environments can be collected in smart cities using CT-powered infrastructure to train and inform models designed for these applications to make realtime decisions. For instance, insistent collection of traffic congestion data from roadside units(RSU) and other sources can be sent to ICT infrastructure to train machine learning models how to make optimal decisions related to traffic lights to reduce congestion. This approach is becoming more within reach given the advances in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) [3, 4, 5] and other Internetof-Vehicles (IoV) systems [6, 7, 8].
Making smart decisions in a timely fashion will require a powerful pipeline ready to support intense amounts of data collection, analytics, and adaptive decision-making. For instance, video feeds at road intersections — to empower models for smart traffic light control — are large in size (in terms of bytes) and will require automated processes to make meaningful decisions in real-time. However, video cameras that provide such video feeds will be unable, on their own, to perform such analytics and decision-making. Such tasks would require more computational resources than would be available at video cameras and other similar sensors that can be found in urban environments. Thus, for such applications, smart cities will need to be able to provide heavy computational power on-demand, even for devices that do not have such resources locally. Applications (e.g., big data analytics, video classification) all require large amounts of compute resources in order to adequately process. Because Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices like smartphones are often ill-equipped to meet the needs of such processes [9, 10], a standard approach for providing these services on these devices is to rely on remote resources.