مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد سیستم پیچیده تطبیقی سیاست جنگل چین

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مشخصات مقاله
عنوان مقاله  A complex adaptive systems perspective of forest policy in China
ترجمه عنوان مقاله  چشم انداز سیستم های پیچیده تطبیقی سیاست جنگل در چین
فرمت مقاله  PDF
نوع مقاله  ISI
سال انتشار

مقاله سال ۲۰۱۶

تعداد صفحات مقاله  ۷ صفحه
رشته های مرتبط  منابع طبیعی
گرایش های مرتبط  جنگلداری
مجله  پیش بینی فنی و تغییر اجتماعی – Technological Forecasting & Social Change
دانشگاه  گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه اورگان، یوجین، یالات متحده آمریکا
کلمات کلیدی  سیاست های جنگل، سیستم تطبیقی پیچیده، چین، انعطاف پذیری
کد محصول  E4673
نشریه  نشریه الزویر
لینک مقاله در سایت مرجع  لینک این مقاله در سایت الزویر (ساینس دایرکت) Sciencedirect – Elsevier
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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بخشی از متن مقاله:
۱٫ Introduction

The management of natural resources has drastically altered landscapes around the world (Steffen et al., 2006). For decades, the prevailing paradigm of natural resources policies has focused on optimization of outputs by simplifying natural ecosystems and enforcing policies with narrow objectives across diverse landscapes (Folke et al., 2004). This paradigm treats the growth of natural resources as a stable process, where inputs are controlled and outcomes are predictable (Drever et al., 2006). While this mode of governance has produced substantial social and economic wealth, there is growing evidence that the paradigm is leading to the production of social and ecological systems that are more vulnerable to economic and natural disturbances (Folke et al., 2002).

A predominant example of this paradigm has been China’s forest policies over the 20th century that have exploited the countries forests for timber production in order to satisfy the country’s increasing desire for wood and wood products and for supplying export market demands (Démurger et al., 2009). China has a long record of large-scale deforestation, which in recent decades helped facilitate the rise of the globalized Chinese economy and mass population growth during the second half of the 20th century (Wang et al., 2004). However, this period of exploitation has led to widespread land use change (Zhang and Song, 2006), loss of habitat for thousands of native species and created social and economic disparities between landowner farmers and those selling timber in domestic and international markets (Li et al., 2007).

While pressure for more sustainable forest policies was mounting from environmental groups in China in the late 20th century, the most significant reform to the country’s forestry practices were precipitated by the 1998 floods of several major rivers including the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers (Ji et al., 2011). The flooding of the Yangtze reportedly caused 1320 deaths, affected 223 million people, and destroyed over 150,000 homes (Xu et al., 2006). While numerous causes of this flood have been reported, deforestation is often cited as the most prominent driver (Démurger et al., 2009). The direct link between deforestation and these floods prompted significant forest policy reforms at the national level that aimed to curb deforestation in key areas in order to decrease soil erosion and sandificaiton of deforested lands. At the same time, new reforestation and afforestation programs were put into place to increase China’s forest cover to further assist with soil erosion problems as well as improve the livelihoods of rural farmers.

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