|ترجمه عنوان مقاله||بررسی رابطه بین تبعیض، دسترسی به منابع مادی و عملکرد رفتاری کودکان سیاه پوست در طول کووید-۱۹|
|عنوان انگلیسی مقاله||Examining the relationship between discrimination, access to material resources, and black children’s behavioral functioning during COVID-19|
|انتشار||مقاله سال ۲۰۲۳|
|تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||۱۲ صفحه|
|هزینه||دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.|
|نوع نگارش مقاله
||مقاله پژوهشی (Research Article)|
|مقاله بیس||این مقاله بیس نمیباشد|
|نمایه (index)||Scopus – Master Journal List – JCR|
|فرمت مقاله انگلیسی|
||۴٫۱۱۷ در سال ۲۰۲۰|
|شاخص H_index||۱۰۵ در سال ۲۰۲۲|
|شاخص SJR||۱٫۶۵۳ در سال ۲۰۲۰|
|شاخص Quartile (چارک)||Q1 در سال ۲۰۲۰|
|رشته های مرتبط||پزشکی – علوم اجتماعی|
|گرایش های مرتبط||اپیدمیولوژی – جامعه شناسی – پژوهشگری اجتماعی|
|نوع ارائه مقاله
|مجله||فصلنامه پژوهشی دوران کودکی – Early Childhood Research Quarterly|
|دانشگاه||The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States|
|کلمات کلیدی||سختی مادی – نژاد پرستی – رشد کودک سیاه پوست – عملکرد رفتاری – کووید ۱۹ – تبعیض،|
|کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی||Material Hardship – Racism – Black Child Development – Behavioral Functioning – Covid-19 – Discrimination|
|شناسه دیجیتال – doi
|لینک سایت مرجع||https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0885200622001016|
|وضعیت ترجمه مقاله||ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.|
|دانلود رایگان مقاله||دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی|
|سفارش ترجمه این مقاله||سفارش ترجمه این مقاله|
|فهرست مطالب مقاله:|
CRediT authorship contribution statement
|بخشی از متن مقاله:|
Systemic racism and discriminatory practices continue to disproportionally expose Black children and families to less than optimal health and economic resources. COVID-19 sheds existing light on how longstanding systemic inequalities affecting Black children and families create racial disparities in accessing material resources. The purpose of this study (N = 704 Black caregivers) is to better understand the relationship between experiences of racial discrimination, access to material resources (i.e., health-promoting resources and economic resources), and Black children’s behavioral functioning during the pandemic. Through the application of ordinary least squares regression analysis, we find that inadequate material resources (both health-related risks and economic hardship) during the pandemic were associated with heightened caregiver report that their child was frequently fussy or defiant (externalizing) and frequently anxious or fearful (internalizing). The study found no significant links between caregivers’ experiences of discrimination during the pandemic and children’s behavioral functioning. However, the study found a significant link between caregivers’ concern for their children’s experiences of discrimination and their children’s externalizing behaviors. Findings from this study offer an important contribution to understanding how factors rooted in systemic racism—access to material resources—and experiences of discrimination affect Black children’s well-being during COVID-19.
While countless studies demonstrate the positive relationship between access to material resources (e.g., health-promoting resources and economic resources) and children’s externalizing (e.g., impulsivity, noncompliance, and aggression) and internalizing (e.g., depression, anxiety, and social withdrawal) behaviors, there is a stark reality that access to these much-needed resources is differentially patterned across children and families of various racial and ethnic backgrounds. Inequities in material resources directly affect children’s early developmental outcomes (Duncan, Magnuson & Votruba-Drzal, 2015). For instance, difficulty paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing, utilities, health care, etc.) and economic insecurity have also been linked to children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Specifically, researchers note that developing in financially stressed environments has the potential to alter positive caregiver behaviors associated with children’s positive cognitive, emotional, and behavioral development (e.g., Longo, McPherran Lombardi & Dearing, 2017). Furthermore, health-related risks, conceptualized broadly to include threats such as mental health symptomology and lack of health insurance coverage, among both caregivers and children pose threats to children’s development. Caregiver depressive symptoms, which are heightened among families possessing low-income socioeconomic resources (Silva, Loureiro & Cardoso, 2016), have shown deleterious links with children’s behavioral functioning (e.g., Trapolini, McMahon & Ungerer, 2007). Additionally, children who lack health insurance coverage are more likely to experience delayed or unmet physician care, such as well-baby and well-child visits (Lave et al., 1998). When children miss well-baby or well-child visits, their caregivers also miss opportunities to receive support and guidance about their children’s behavioral and emotional functioning (Weitzman et al., 2015). These threats to children’s development are particularly pronounced during early childhood, when children’s biology and behavior are rapidly shaped by their environments and experiences (e.g., Shonkoff et al., 2012).
Early childhood is a sensitive period for children’s development impacted by biological, neurological, and environmental contexts. However, not all children are afforded the same opportunities to meet their potential due to their socio-demographics (i.e., skin color, socioeconomic status). The findings from this study offer an important contribution to understanding how factors rooted in systemic racism—access to material resources (health-promoting resources and economic resources) — and experiences of discrimination, affect young Black children’s well-being during COVID-19, a global pandemic that disproportionately impacts Black children and their families and communities. While interventions in the early years cannot address all problems, especially problems due to historical racism, equitable opportunities during the first year of life could stymie disparities later in life.
The structural determinants of early learning must be placed at the center of policy decision making to ensure equitable access, experiences, and outcomes for Black children and their families (Iruka, 2020). Addressing the challenges faced by young Black children and their families requires attending to social policies that impact their daily lives from housing, education, and labor, policies that impact families’ socioeconomic position and upward mobility. Families’ socioeconomic status greatly influences their access to resources, opportunities, time, and functioning to meet their children’s needs, critical in the early years (McLoyd, 1990). Families’ socioeconomic position also influences the experiences children have inside and outside the home, such as access to high quality early care and education and health care services. The findings from this study underscore the importance of delivering on the promise for Black children and their families as they remain resilience in the face of 2 pandemics – COVID-19 and racism.