|عنوان مقاله||Foreign players and competitive balance in Greek basketball and handball championships|
|ترجمه عنوان مقاله||بازیکنان خارجی و تعادل رقابتی در مسابقات قهرمانی بسکتبال و هندبال یونان|
|نوع نگارش مقاله||مقاله پژوهشی (Research article)|
|تعداد صفحات مقاله||۱۱ صفحه|
|رشته های مرتبط||تربیت بدنی|
|دانشگاه||دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه ملی و کاپادیستری آتن، یونان|
|کلمات کلیدی||تعادل رقابتی، بازیکنان خارجی، بسکتبال، هندبال|
|لینک مقاله در سایت مرجع||لینک این مقاله در سایت الزویر (ساینس دایرکت) Sciencedirect – Elsevier|
|وضعیت ترجمه مقاله||ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.|
|دانلود رایگان مقاله||دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی|
|سفارش ترجمه این مقاله||سفارش ترجمه این مقاله|
|بخشی از متن مقاله:|
Sport holds a prominent place in the social life of people. A person may actively partake in a sport but he could also take on the role of an audience. In one way or another sport not only becomes part of the culture of a nation, it is also a potentially significant economic event. Team sports are high in preference and popularity and are the centre of attention. Fans are intrigued with a match when there is uncertainty of result. To be able to ensure uncertainty of the result between teams in a league, it would be desirable to have teams with equal chances of winning the match.
In Greece, team sports are undoubtedly the most popular. Basketball and handball are two team games that we discuss in this paper. Although both are team sports, they exhibit fundamental differences. Basketball appeared in Greece toward the end of the 1910s. The first championships took place in the 1927–۱۹۲۸ season divided between the north and south of the country, while the first national championship took place in the 1960s. An important structural change took effect in 1992 with the formation of the first professional league or the First League. However, even though players were not officially ‘‘professionals’’ before this date, they enjoyed considerable incomes or other perks.
On the other hand, handball in Greece officially started in 1979. It is a relatively newer sport than basketball. Handball is divided into one national league and several local leagues based on geographical criteria. Leagues in both sports are considered open, based on the promotion-relegation rule; that is, the last teams on the ladder are replaced the following season by the best teams of the immediate lower league. Even today, handball continues to be termed amateur as it has not been officially termed professional by the state even though in the beginning of the new millennia there was a tendency for higher wages and an introduction of more foreign players. Basketball has a longer presence than handball and is more popular as well as gaining good rankings in European basketball and world placements. In the beginning, participation in both sports was limited only to Greek players. Foreign players appeared in basketball and in handball in the 1988–۱۹۸۹ and 1999–۲۰۰۰ seasons, respectively.