مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد نقش شبکه توزیع کننده در تداوم مشکلات حقوقی و اخلاقی شرکتهای بازاریابی چند سطحی – اسپرینگر ۲۰۱۹

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مشخصات مقاله
ترجمه عنوان مقاله نقش شبکه توزیع کننده در تداوم مشکلات حقوقی و اخلاقی شرکتهای بازاریابی چند سطحی
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله The Role of the Distributor Network in the Persistence of Legal and Ethical Problems of Multi-level Marketing Companies
انتشار مقاله سال ۲۰۱۹
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی  ۲۳ صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
پایگاه داده نشریه اسپرینگر
نوع نگارش مقاله
مقاله پژوهشی (Research Article)
مقاله بیس این مقاله بیس نمیباشد
نمایه (index) Scopus – Master journals – JCR
نوع مقاله ISI
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
ایمپکت فاکتور(IF)
۴٫۳۳۰ در سال ۲۰۱۸
شاخص H_index ۱۴۷ در سال ۲۰۱۹
شاخص SJR ۱٫۸۶۰ در سال ۲۰۱۸
شناسه ISSN ۰۱۶۷-۴۵۴۴
شاخص Quartile (چارک) Q1 در سال ۲۰۱۸
مدل مفهومی ندارد
پرسشنامه ندارد
متغیر ندارد
رفرنس دارد
رشته های مرتبط مدیریت
گرایش های مرتبط بازاریابی، مدیریت کسب و کار، مدیریت بازاریابی
نوع ارائه مقاله
ژورنال
مجله مجله اخلاق در  تجارت – Journal Of Business Ethics
دانشگاه Institute for Management Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, PO Box 9108, 6500 HK Nijmegen, The Netherlands
کلمات کلیدی اخلاق شرکتی، رفتار غیرقانونی، بازاریابی چند سطحی، رفتار غیر اخلاقی
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Corporate ethics، Illegal behavior، Multi-level marketing، Unethical behavior
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-017-3556-9
کد محصول E12624
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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فهرست مطالب مقاله:
Abstract

Introduction

The Legal and Ethical Problems of MLMs and Existing Measures to Deal with them

Illegal Pyramid Schemes

Misrepresenting the Business Opportunity

Harming Customers

(Mis-)using Trust in Private Social Relations

Total Institutions: Colonizing Every Aspect of Distributors’ Lives

Understanding how MLMs Operate: A ‘Prevailing’ and an ‘Extended’ Model

The ‘Prevailing Model’ of MLMs

An Extended Model of MLMs

Why Legal and Ethical Problems Persist, Despite Exiting Countermeasures

Illegal Pyramid Schemes

Misrepresenting the Business Opportunity

Harming Customers

(Mis-)using Trust in Private Social Relations

Total Institutions: Colonizing Every Aspect of Members’ Lives

Summary of why Legal and Ethical Problems Persist, Despite Existing Countermeasures

Reflecting on Additional Countermeasures

Conclusion

References

 

بخشی از متن مقاله:

Abstract

Multi-level marketing companies (MLMs) such as Amway, Herbalife, or Tupperware differ from most other companies. They market their products and services by means of self-employed distributors who typically work from home, sell products to end consumers, and recruit, motivate, and educate new distributors to do the same. Although the industry’s growth seems to illustrate the attractiveness of MLMs, the industry has been facing several legal and ethical problems. In this paper, we focus on these problems and argue that an extended MLM model may help us to understand why such problems continue to occur, despite the countermeasures that have been implemented. By explicating how problems relate to a specific but often overlooked characteristic of MLMs, i.e., the socalled distributor network, we provide an extended understanding of (a) MLMs’ mode of operation, (b) the sources of their legal and ethical problems, and (c) the reason that currently implemented and suggested countermeasures may not suffice. Moreover, based on our extended understanding of MLMs and their problems, we propose additional countermeasures.

Introduction

Multi-level marketing companies (MLMs) such as Avon, Amway, Herbalife, Mary Kay Cosmetics, Tupperware, and Vemma represent a growing industry worldwide (WFDSA 2016). In 2015, more than 103.3 million people around the world worked for MLMs, creating a retail turnover of approximately 183.7 bn US Dollars (for worldwide as well as regional numbers see WFDSA 2016). Typically, selfemployed, unsalaried, and independent MLM distributors are entitled to earn money in two ways (Brodie et al. 2004). First, by selling company products ‘directly’ to consumers, i.e., on a ‘face-to-face [basis] … away from a fixed retail location’ (Peterson and Wotruba 1996, p. 2). Typical products and services sold to non-members (‘ultimate consumers’) are, for example, cosmetics, energy supply, food storage products, insurances, jewelry, loans, nutritional supplements, phone contracts, and wine (DSN 2012). Making money this way is characteristic for so-called ‘direct selling organizations’—to which MLMs belong. A second way for MLM distributors to earn money is by recruiting, training, and motivating new distributors, and building a so-called ‘downline’ of members (Brodie et al. 2002). When downline members buy products from the company or recruit new members to do the same, the recruiters (the ‘upline’) earn override commissions on the product purchases of their downline. This results in a ‘hierarchy of recruiters/sellers’ which is distinctive of MLMs. Almost all direct selling organizations employ this ‘multi-level marketing’ structure (DSN 2012), which means that almost all direct selling organizations are also MLMs.

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