|عنوان مقاله||Strategic airline operation considering the carbon constrained air transport industry|
|ترجمه عنوان مقاله||عملیات هواپیمایی استراتژیک با توجه به کربن محدود شده صنعت حمل و نقل هوایی|
|نوع نگارش مقاله||مقاله پژوهشی (Research article)|
|سال انتشار||مقاله سال ۲۰۱۷|
|تعداد صفحات مقاله||۹ صفحه|
|رشته های مرتبط||علوم و فنون هوایی و مدیریت|
|مجله||مجله مدیریت حمل و نقل هوایی – Journal of Air Transport Management|
|دانشگاه||گروه هتل و مدیریت گردشگری، دانشکده گردشگری، دانشگاه Sejong، کره جنوبی|
|کلمات کلیدی||انتساب هواپیما، عملیات هواپیمایی، انتشار کربن، EU-ETS ،تنظیم مسیر پرواز، الگوریتم ژنتیک|
|لینک مقاله در سایت مرجع||لینک این مقاله در سایت الزویر (ساینس دایرکت) Sciencedirect – Elsevier|
|وضعیت ترجمه مقاله||ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.|
|دانلود رایگان مقاله||دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی|
|سفارش ترجمه این مقاله||سفارش ترجمه این مقاله|
|بخشی از متن مقاله:|
Many efforts are being made to prevent environmental pollution and achieve sustainable development in every field of industry and commerce. However, these various efforts tend to be most effective when they involve not only organizations inside a certain country, but also global actors and cooperation among many countries. Among such international efforts, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) is one of the most successful. The EU-ETS has applied international regulations on the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 and CH4. This scheme has been legislated by the EU council and parliament on the basis of the Kyoto Protocol agreements made during the Third Conference of the Parties at Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997. According to the Kyoto Protocol plan, developed countries that belong to Annex I (such as the EU and Japan) were to reduce their emissions of GHGs to 94.8% of their 1990 levels by 2012. Developing countries that belong to the Non-Annex nations (such as Korea and China) were toprepare and execute similar GHG reduction plans starting in 2012. To follow up the Kyoto Protocol’s recommendations, the EU and three other countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway) announced the EU-ETS, which was to be implemented in three phases. This scheme is a kind of “cap and trade” system, in which each country has a pre-assigned annual volume of GHG emissions, and the participants can buy or sell their own emissions rights to other countries in a trading market. The EU-ETS was implemented in a test drive phase I period (2005e2007), and since then it has steadily supplemented and strengthened its regulations in terms of the industries affected and goals set during its phase II (2008e2012) and phase III (2013e2020) periods.
Since 2012, the EU-ETS has applied GHG limitations to the air transport industry. Although carbon emissions from air transport are currently below 4% of the EU’s total annual emissions, this industry’s proportion of total GHG emissions is expected to increase to 15% of all such emissions by 2050. The initial EU-ETS regulations have been a subject of controversy around the world, because the EU has decided to apply its emission restrictions to all airlines that operate in EU territory, regardless of their nationality. According to Airlines for America, the overall additional cost of applying EU-ETS restrictions to U.S.-based airlines will amount to USD3.1 billion between 2012 and 2020. In addition, the China AirTransport Association has estimated that the required additional cost to Chinese airlines will be RMB0.8 billion over the same period. However, at the request of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the application of the EU-ETS to the aviation industry was delayed until after 2020. The ICAO began developing a global market-based mechanism in 2013, announced its application policy to the aviation industry in 2016, and agreed to apply it from 2020. That is, the EU-ETS was introduced to EU airlines from 2012 but was deferred to non-EU airlines until 2020. As a result, the aviation industry is also partially subject to the EU-ETS sometime, and many airlines have tried to develop countermeasures to reduce or avert the adverse effects of this regulation scheme.
According to an interview with the staff of a Korea-based airline, possible countermeasures that airlines may take against EU-ETS restrictions include the following: C assigning new highly fuel-efficient aircraft to the EU routes C adding fuel-efficient devices to existing aircraft C adjusting the airline’s flight network C resetting the aircraft’s center of gravity C reducing the weight of aircraft loading materials C finding more efficient air routes C using biomass jet fuel, which is exempt from carbon credits Of these possible approaches, we consider only the countermeasures that involve aircraft reassignments and flight route adjustments. Because the EU-ETS is applied only to flights that either originate or terminate in EU territory, airlines that are not based in the EU can, to some degree, cope with the EU-ETS by means of aircraft re-assignment and flight route adjustment. When the more fuel-efficient aircraft are assigned to EU routes, the amounts of carbon emission for EU flights can be reduced. In addition, when certain flight routes that are affected by the EU-ETS are adjusted as shorter hauls, the amounts of carbon emission counted under the EU-ETS quotas can be reduced.we only need information representing the gray-colored gene. Therefore, we suggest a configuration of the chromosome as shown in Fig. 3, and the number of genes is I(I1)/2 þ ۱٫ A laconic configuration of the chromosome is very important, because it can significantly affect the performance of the genetic algorithm.