|عنوان مقاله||The role of dedicated freighter aircraft in the provision of global airfreight services|
|ترجمه عنوان مقاله||نقش هواپیمای باری اختصاصی در ارائه خدمات باربری هوایی جهانی|
|نوع نگارش مقاله||مقاله پژوهشی (Research article)|
|تعداد صفحات مقاله||۷ صفحه|
|رشته های مرتبط||علوم فنون هوایی|
|مجله||مجله مدیریت حمل و نقل هوایی – Journal of Air Transport Management|
|دانشگاه||گروه مطالعات حمل و نقل، دانشکده عمران و ساختمان مهندسی، دانشگاه لافبورو، انگلستان|
|کلمات کلیدی||باربری هوایی، هواپیمای باری،ظرفیت حمل و نقل، خطوط هوایی حمل و نقل|
|لینک مقاله در سایت مرجع||لینک این مقاله در سایت الزویر (ساینس دایرکت) Sciencedirect – Elsevier|
|وضعیت ترجمه مقاله||ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.|
|دانلود رایگان مقاله||دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی|
|سفارش ترجمه این مقاله||سفارش ترجمه این مقاله|
|بخشی از متن مقاله:|
The provision of safe, efficient and affordable commercial air transport services is a key enabler and driver of international trade and globalisation (Bowen, 2013; Birtchnell et al., 2015). In 2014, over 3 billion passengers and over 51 million tonnes of high valueto-weight and/or perishable goods, including cut flowers, cool chain pharmaceutical products, humanitarian supplies, live animals and consumer electronics (on which see Bowen and Leinbach, 2009), valued at over US$6.8 trillion, were flown around the world (IATA, 2015). Just over half (56%) of the global revenue freight tonne kilometres was flown on dedicated freighter aircraft while the rest was transported in the holds of passenger flights or on combi or QC aircraft operated by passenger-cargo combination carriers (Boeing, 2014). Despite only accounting for 0.5% of total world trade by volume, the particular characteristics of air shipments means air freight accounts for 35% of total world trade by value and air freight underpins the supply chains of many of the world’s leading companies (IATA, 2016). Indeed, so reliant has modern society become on networks of aerial just-in-time logistics that any disruption to normal air freight flows, such as that which resulted from the airspace closures which accompanied the eruption of Iceland’s Eyjafallajokull volcano in 2010, has widespread social and economic impacts (Budd et al., 2011).
In addition to its socio-economic significance for global society, air freight also represents an important revenue stream for airlines. In 2015, freight generated, on average, 9% of total airline revenues, over twice as much as that derived from first class products (IATA, 2015). For certain carriers, freight’s revenue contribution is significantly higher. 25% of Hong-Kong based Cathay Pacific’s revenues, for example, come from freight and the airline states that air freight demand enables it to offer both higher frequencies on certain services and serve routes that ordinarily would not be commercially viable based on passenger demand alone (Gangwani, 2015). However, despite its commercial importance to contemporary airline (and, increasingly, airport) operations, air freight was originally considered to be a by-product of passenger services and it was not until the latter half of the twentieth century that dedicated freightonly airlines and specialist airfreight services began to emerge.
Over the last 10 years, regulatory reform combined with weakening global demand, fuel price volatility, increased competition and a growing trend towards on-shoring production have conspired to depress cargo yields and cause commercial airlines to re-evaluate the nature of the freight services they offer. The challenging commercial environment confronting airfreight providers has been further exacerbated by overcapacity in the sector (which has, in part, been caused by the introduction of new passengeraircraft that have higher belly hold capacities), modal shift towards cheaper sea shipping, and an increase in international trade protection measures which are restricting cross border trade (IATA, 2016). In response, a number of passenger-cargo combination carriers and specialist airfreight operators have redeployed, reduced or entirely eliminated their freighter aircraft leading some industry commentators to question the long-term viability of maindeck (i.e. dedicated) cargo aircraft (Woods, 2015). However, despite these challenges, dedicated freighters offer both shippers and airlines a number of strategic commercial advantages. According to Airbus (2015), these include: greater control over schedules, volumes and routes; access to airports that are not usually served by passenger flights; and the ability to transport hazardous and outsized loads that cannot be accommodated as belly-freight.