مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد تاثیر خشکسالی بر حمل و نقل فلوئم – الزویر ۲۰۱۸

elsevier

 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال ۲۰۱۸
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی ۶ صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه الزویر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Drought impacts on phloem transport
ترجمه عنوان مقاله تاثیر خشکسالی بر روی حمل و نقل فلوئم
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط جغرافیا
گرایش های مرتبط تغییرات آب و هوایی اقلیمی
مجله نظرات رایج در بیولوژی گیاهان – Current Opinion in Plant Biology
دانشگاه Earth and Environmental Sciences Division – Los Alamos National Laboratory – USA
کد محصول E7822
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Introduction

Predictions for future climate suggest an increase in drought frequency and severity especially in the midlatitudes and low-latitudes [1]. This has brought up a concern about future agricultural and forest productivity. Reductions in productivity could be significant enough to have a major impact on human wellbeing [2,3]. Vegetation decline could also accelerate global warming through the altered carbon and water cycles [4]. These predictions are supported by a large number of observed ecosystem-scale forest mortality events during the past 20 years [5]. The scientific community has reacted by an increased interest in developing methods for predicting plant survival under drought [6–۱۰]. The most commonly used concept in these models is based on the theories about xylem vulnerability to embolism [11 ], and its connection to stomatal closure [12,13]. These theories suggest that during drought water tension in the xylem increases leading to embolization of xylem conduits. To prevent catastrophic loss of xylem conductivity plants close their stomata before a water tension threshold isreached. Thisthreshold depends on plant species and is linked with xylem vulnerability to embolism [11 ]. Even after stomatal closure, plants slowly lose water through the bark and cuticular tissue of leaves. Stomatal closure does not completely prevent additional embolism [14 ,۱۵ ], but it significantly reduces water loss rates and embolism propagation. The theories on xylem vulnerability to drought and its connection to stomatal closure point are robust and supported by a wealth of empirical evidence [11 ,۱۳,۱۶,۱۷], but the predictive power of this approach concerning plant survival time is limited [9,11 ,۱۸]. We lack knowledge on how to define the needed thresholds of catastrophic hydraulic failure [19,20]. Findings on a metaanalysis of 19 recent plant mortality studies on 26 species around the world suggests that 60% or higher loss of conductivity leads to mortality (defined as loss of leaves or cessation of respiration [21 ]), while many other studies have used thresholds on 50–۸۸% [۱۹,۲۰]. Other open questions include how fast plants would die once a threshold is reached [8], and how availability of new or stored carbohydrates, and their use impact these thresholds, and survival or revival capacity after drought [22,23].

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