مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد ساخت و ساز محیط بعد از جنگ – الزویر ۲۰۱۷

elsevier

 

مشخصات مقاله
ترجمه عنوان مقاله ساخت و ساز محیط بعد از جنگ
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Building in post-war environments
انتشار مقاله سال ۲۰۱۷
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی ۱۰ صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
پایگاه داده نشریه الزویر
نوع نگارش مقاله
مقاله پژوهشی (Research article)
مقاله بیس این مقاله بیس نمیباشد
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مهندسی عمران، شهرسازی
گرایش های مرتبط طراحی شهری
نوع ارائه مقاله
کنفرانس
مجله / کنفرانس مجله مهندسی پروسیدیا – Procedia Engineering
دانشگاه Politecnico di Bari – Dipartimento DICATECH – Bari – Italy
کلمات کلیدی محیط بعد از جنگ؛ بازسازی؛ مسکن اضطراری
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Post war wnvironments; reconstruction; emergency housing
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.04.269
کد محصول E10458
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
دانلود رایگان مقاله دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی
سفارش ترجمه این مقاله سفارش ترجمه این مقاله

 

فهرست مطالب مقاله:
Abstract
۱ Introduction
۲ Environmental devastations due to modern wars
۳ Role of international organizations
۴ Emergency construction techniques and products
۵ Reconstruction
۶ Conclusions
References

بخشی از متن مقاله:
Abstract

Modern wars generate devastating effects on the environment by using chemical, biological, radioactive weapons. Toxic effects persist for long time on war fields. Negative environmental impacts such as desertification, migrant masses, depletion of natural resources (food, water, wood, etc.), and induced biodiversity produce, in turn, conflicts. This paper aims at i) identifying the consequences of conflicts and wars on the built environment with special reference to the industrial and residential buildings in urban areas; ii) determining the environmental impact of the procurement and use of natural resources and materials for the reconstruction of human settlements; iii) describing the results of this contribution according to their practical use. The research starts with a critical analysis of international examples related to modern wars. Contemporary situations of environmental degradation also related to major natural disasters that have altered the context in which they happened have been then analysed. Moreover, results of some significant interventions of environmental clean-up and building reconstruction have been examined, together with guidelines of the international humanitarian organizations on aspects of health and quality of life in areas with depleted environment. Results of these studies permit to suggest a post war methodology for the revitalization of the territory with restocking and monitored rebuilding, coordinated with contextual recovery of ecosystems. Construction techniques, with characteristics of resilience, habitability and sustainability are finally proposed. These solutions must also strive for reintegration of personal property and for the definitive localization of residents respecting their traditions and culture. Overall, this paper gives an operative contribution to one of the most important problems of humanity, which can be useful to future researches on territories marked by the environmental degradation caused by wars. Recovered environments, made sustainable, may help to understand that the real solution is avoiding wars and their deleterious effects.

Introduction

In the past, when a war ended, everyone rejoiced, the peace was restored, life began again: upon reconstruction, pain and discomfort were forgotten. Now it is no longer the case. Modern wars, with their chemical weapons, radioactive bombs and targeted biological destruction, produce environmental devastation both on natural and anthropic systems [1], often creating total uninhabitable situations for a long and unpredictable time. Apart from their direct consequences, as the destruction of entire ecosystems, conflicts induce desertification, deforestation, water and air pollution, and poisoning of soils that, in turn, may cause the habitat abandonment, the displacement of mass refugees, the cancellation of the local economy, traditions and culture of entire populations. Already during the Second World War, the study of toxic substances to be used to overthrow ecosystems and cause damage to the enemy gave birth to the industrial production of pesticides that were widely used in agriculture, not always properly. It is from the 60’s onwards that the use of toxic substances has developed. Obviously, these substances are not limited to ravage theatres of war, but they affect neighbouring states and territories, that suffer serious environmental and often irreversible damage. Unfortunately, there are endless quotable examples regarding the employ of deadly weapons for the environment. Below are some of the conflicts that have arisen in the last 50 years for various reasons (religion, economy, territorial domination, ethnic groups, tyranny, only to cite some). From the Vietnam War (1962 – use of defoliant “Agent Orange”) to the Gulf War (1991 with an air pollution that reached India), to the civil war in Syria (2011 and ongoing), up to the present day, there exist about 60 ongoing conflicts in Africa (Central African Republic, Somalia, South Sudan, etc.) [2]. At the moment, in Asia there are conflicts and wars involving about 15 States (Afghanistan since 2001, the Philippines, Pakistan, Myanmar). In Europe, Ukraine and Chechnya are currently involved in wars, while in the Middle East, there are several breeding grounds of conflict, such as the conflictual situation between Palestine and Israel, Iraq (ISIS), Syria (civil war since 2011 – perhaps the most violent ongoing conflict at present), and Yemen [3]. Even in South America there are several examples of clashes with devastating effects on the territories involved. However, beyond the tragic stories of these single events, for the purposes of this paper it should be noted that from the 60’s armed conflicts have had an increasing negative effect on the environment [4].

ارسال دیدگاه

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد. بخش‌های موردنیاز علامت‌گذاری شده‌اند *