مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد داده های ژنتیکی بزرگ و چالش های حفاظت کلان داده ها – الزویر ۲۰۱۸

elsevier

 

مشخصات مقاله
ترجمه عنوان مقاله داده های ژنتیکی بزرگ و چالش های حفاظت کلان داده ها
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Big genetic data and its big data protection challenges
انتشار مقاله سال ۲۰۱۸
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی ۱۹ صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
پایگاه داده نشریه الزویر
نوع نگارش مقاله مقاله پژوهشی (Research article)
مقاله بیس این مقاله بیس نمیباشد
نمایه (index) scopus – master journals – JCR
نوع مقاله ISI
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
ایمپکت فاکتور(IF) ۰٫۸۶۷ در سال ۲۰۱۷
شاخص H_index ۲۴ در سال ۲۰۱۸
شاخص SJR ۰٫۳۳۴ در سال ۲۰۱۸
رشته های مرتبط زیست شناسی
گرایش های مرتبط بیوانفورماتیک
نوع ارائه مقاله ژورنال
مجله / کنفرانس بررسی قانون کامپیوتر و امنیت – Computer Law & Security Review
دانشگاه Vrije Universiteit Brussel – Brussels – Belgium
کلمات کلیدی تحقیق ژنتیکی، کلان داده، حفاظت از داده ها، GDPR
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Genetic research, Big data, Data protection, GDPR
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clsr.2018.05.028
کد محصول E9760
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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فهرست مطالب مقاله:
Abstract
Keywords
۱ Introduction
۲ Big genetic data and its use in research
۳ Is big genetic data always personal data?
۴ Personal genetic data is always sensitive data
۵ The need to follow data processing principles
۶ The need for an impact assessment
۷ The need to facilitate data subject rights
۸ Consent as `Default’ legal base?
۹ The use of the `Scientific research exception’
۱۰ The critical role of ethics bodies
۱۱ Conclusion
References

بخشی از متن مقاله:
abstract

The use of various forms of big data have revolutionised scientific research. This includes research in the field of genetics in areas ranging from medical research to anthropology. Developments in this area have inter alia been characterised by the ability to sequence genome wide sequences (GWS) cheaply, the ability to share and combine with other forms of complimentary data and ever more powerful processing techniques that have become possible given tremendous increases in computing power. Given that many if not most of these techniques will make use of personal data it is necessary to take into account data protection law. This article looks at challenges for researchers that will be presented by the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation, which will be in effect from May 2018. The very nature of research with big data in general and genetic data in particular means that in many instances compliance will be onerous, whilst in others it may even be difficult to envisage how compliance may be possible. Compliance concerns include issues relating to ‘purpose limitation’, ‘data minimisation’ and ‘storage limitation’. Other requirements, including the need to facilitate data subject rights and potentially conduct a Data Protection Impact Assessment (DPIA) may provide further complications for researchers. Further critical issues to consider include the choice of legal base: whether to opt for what is often seen as the ‘default option’ (i.e. consent) or to process under the so called ‘scientific research exception’. Each presents its own challenges (including the likely need to gain ethical approval) and opportunities that will have to be considered according to the particular context in question.

Introduction

The use of genetic data in research has been undergoing a fundamental shift. Researchers are no longer restricted to working with relatively small samples of individual genomes (for example DNA relating to a gene known to effect disease aetiology) but now work with various markers scattered across the entire genome. This type of data is used in various areas of research including efforts to discover new disease variants or to increase understanding of evolutionary processes. The field of bioinformatics and computational genetics has evolved inter alia to allow researchers to focus on detailed ‘high-depth’ sequencing of the entire genome of individuals allowed by advances in genome sequencing technology and computing power. These advances mean that an individual’s genome can be sequenced relatively quickly and cheaply (costing less than a MRI scan in a local hospital). Powerful software has furthermore been developed to analyse such genome wide sequences (GWSs). The research potential of such techniques has been complimented by the ability to share and combine GWS data with a range of potential complimentary data sets (e.g. electronic health records). These developments have ushered in a world of ‘big data genomics’ where researchers carry out complex data mining operations on the entire genomes of individuals and groups of individuals. Whilst these developments promise to permit great leaps forward in our understanding of the human genome and its relationship to various important issues (not least to human disease), they also pose new risks in terms of privacy related harms. These include harms not only to the individuals providing the genetic samples in question but even to those who may be related to them.1 Complying with laws relating to privacy, and in particular to data protection will therefore be a serious issue for researchers conducting research on large samples of genetic data. This article aims to illustrate a number of these issues, highlighting some of the major challenges that the data protection framework poses for researchers active in the use of big genetic data.2 It will focus on compliance with the EU’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which comes into effect across the EU from May 2018. In doing so this paper will use several prominent examples from documented research practice in the area of computational genetics. The authors will illustrate how common practices in this area may be difficult to reconcile with the key pillars of data protection, including the need to have a valid legal ground for processing personal data, the need to respect data processing principles and the need to facilitate data protection rights. As this paper suggests, such burdens may mean that compliance with the EU’s data protection regime (including under the new General Data Protection Regulation) may not only be cumbersome but may, in many cases, be difficult even to envisage given the aims of big genetic data processing for research

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