مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد سازمان پناهندگی رسانه اجتماعی روابط عمومی ( الزویر )

مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد سازمان پناهندگی رسانه اجتماعی روابط عمومی ( الزویر )

 

مشخصات مقاله
عنوان مقاله  Communicating global inequalities: How LGBTI asylum-specific NGOs use social media as public relations
ترجمه عنوان مقاله  ارتباط نابرابری های جهانی: چگونه سازمان های غیر دولتی مخصوص سازمان پناهندگی LGBTI از رسانه های اجتماعی به عنوان روابط عمومی استفاده می کنند
فرمت مقاله  PDF
نوع مقاله  ISI
سال انتشار  مقاله سال ۲۰۱۵
تعداد صفحات مقاله  ۱۱ صفحه
رشته های مرتبط  علوم ارتباطات اجتماعی
گرایش های مرتبط  روابط عمومی
مجله  بررسی روابط عمومی – Public Relations Review
دانشگاه  کالج رسانه و ارتباطات، دانشگاه فنی تگزاس، ایالات متحده
کلمات کلیدی  سرمايه اجتماعي Queer ، ارتباطات استراتژیک، روابط عمومی، PR ، LGBTI ، سازمان غیر دولتی، ارتباطات سازمانی، پناهنده، پناهندگی، رسانه های اجتماعی، توییتر، فیس بوک
کد محصول  E4868
نشریه  نشریه الزویر
لینک مقاله در سایت مرجع  لینک این مقاله در سایت الزویر (ساینس دایرکت) Sciencedirect – Elsevier
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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بخشی از متن مقاله:
۱٫ Introduction

Members of the LGBTI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex) community continue to face persecution in some areas around the world. As of May 2015, over 76 countries in the world (in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Oceania) had laws that deemed homosexual acts illegal (Carroll & Itaborahy, 2015). Castigations include imprisonment, fines, sanctions, beatings, lashings, and even death (ILGA, 2014). Jamaica currently criminalizes anal intercourse, as well as any form of male same-sex intimacy, and imposes a maximum sentence of ten years in prison with or without hard labor (J-FLAG, 2015). Russia and Lithuania currently have laws banning the propaganda of homosexuality, but do not directly mention homosexual acts. Algeria and Nigeria both have similar anti-propaganda laws, however, also prohibit same–sex relationships and sexual behaviors (Carroll & Itaborahy, 2015). One of the most focused-on areas in the world for human rights activists is the Middle East and North African region, also referred to as the MENA region. The MENA region includes eight countries where homosexual acts/behavior can be punished by death, including Draconian methods like stoning and beheading. Only five of those countries (Mauritania, Sudan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen) actually implement the death penalty (Berkowitz, Cameron, & Johnson, 2013). Iraq and Somalia do not employ the death penalty uniformly across the country, however it is enacted provincially (Carroll & Itaborahy, 2015).

To date, nearly 2.79 billion people live in countries where being gay can lead to imprisonment or death—that is almost seven times the number of LGBTIs who live in countries with same-sex marriage (Ball, 2014). Such “human rights violations” have forced hundreds to flee their countries to seek asylum and refuge in other countries. Currently, the U.S. recognizes persecution due to sexual orientation as grounds for refugee status (U.Immigration, 2010). In 2011 alone, 81,372 refugees entered the U.S. legally (U.S. Department of State, n.d.). The number of people granted asylum annually based on sexual orientation or gender identity is probably less than 500; of those about 300 actually disclose their status as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or queer (Forced Migration Review, 2014).

There is a need for LGBTI asylum-specific NGOs that support these refugees in a variety of ways. Most LGBTI refugees and asylum seekers do not arrive with family members or friends. They are fleeing violence from relatives, community members, and police so they often have no relational ties when arriving in the country of asylum. Furthermore, they may choose to remain segregated from those who share the same country of origin. Fellow country-men/women may be fleeing for other reasons aside from sexual orientation and may harbor the same anti-homosexual beliefs and attitudes. Many LGBTI refugees report threats from other refugees during the migration process and self-impose isolation due to deep-seated fears (Forced Migration Review, 2014).

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